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Lesson Transcript

Michael: Hi everyone, and welcome back to FilipinoPod101.com This is Intermediate Season 1 Lesson 22 - Going on the Job Hunt in the Philippines. Michael here.
Erica: Hello. I'm Erica.
Michael: In this lesson, you’ll learn to differentiate between actor-focused and object-focused conjugations of verbs by looking at the pronoun used. The conversation takes place in the street.
Erica: It's between Tony and Ruth.
Michael: The speakers are close friends, so they’ll be using informal Filipino. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.
Tony: Nag-umpisa na ba ang leksiyon?
Ruth: Inumpisahan na ni Prof. Pero wala ka pa naman masyadong na-miss.
Tony: Medyo napahaba ang interbyu ko sa trabaho.
Ruth: Ah nag-job hunting ka na?
Tony: Huli na nga eh. Yung iba nating mga kaklase nagumpisa na kahit sa susunod na linggo pa ang opisyal na pagtatapos.
Ruth: Ah talaga? Buti na lang sa susunod na taon pa ko magtatapos.
Tony: Ako gusto ko na talaga magtapos. Nagpasa na nga ko ng napakaraming resume eh.
Ruth: Libre mo ko pag natanggap ka na ha. Pag tinanggap ka na sabihan mo ko agad.
Tony: Oo ba. Basta bukas ikopya mo ko ng leksyon, mukhang mahuhuli na naman ako.
Ruth: Haha. Sige ba.
Michael: Listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Tony: Has the lesson started yet?
Ruth: It’s been started by the professor, but you haven't missed a lot.
Tony: My job interview ran a bit too long.
Ruth: Ah, you've started job hunting?
Tony: Actually I'm a bit late already. Our other classmates have already started working even though graduation isn’t until next week.
Ruth: Really? Good thing my graduation isn’t until next year.
Tony: I really want to graduate soon. I’ve already submitted a ton of resumes.
Ruth: Treat me to something once you get hired ok? Tell me immediately once they hire you.
Tony: Sure, I will if you copy notes for me tomorrow. I think I'm going to be late tomorrow too.
Ruth: (laughs) No problem.
Michael: Erica, can you tell us something about career opportunities after graduation in the Philippines?
Erica: Well, a government survey showed that by the academic year 2012-2013, more and more students were enrolling in courses such as business administration, hotel and restaurant management, information technology, and nursing and teacher education, while agriculture, engineering, and natural sciences courses had the least number of interested students.
Michael: That must mean some fields are overly saturated and others lacking in workers, right?
Erica: That’s right. This is also related to the fact that unemployment among college graduates is increasing.
Michael: Like in other countries, there is a skills mismatch in that the available graduates do not match the fields of jobs that are looking for workers. But is something being done to fix this?
Erica: Well, a number of big job fairs are held regularly to match graduates with the right jobs for them. While the national government holds job fairs, the local governments of the cities in Metro Manila also promote activities like this to increase employment.
Michael: Okay, that sounds like positive news. Now onto the vocab.
Michael: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is..
Erica: umpisa [natural native speed]
Michael: to start
Erica: umpisa[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Erica: umpisa [natural native speed]
Michael: Next we have..
Erica: trabaho [natural native speed]
Michael: labor, work
Erica: trabaho[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Erica: trabaho [natural native speed]
Michael: Next we have..
Erica: napahaba [natural native speed]
Michael: to get longer, to lengthen, to take longer time
Erica: napahaba[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Erica: napahaba [natural native speed]
Michael: Next we have..
Erica: na-miss [natural native speed]
Michael: to miss (out on something)
Erica: na-miss[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Erica: na-miss [natural native speed]
Michael: Next we have..
Erica: pagtatapos [natural native speed]
Michael: graduation, end
Erica: pagtatapos[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Erica: pagtatapos [natural native speed]
Michael: Next we have..
Erica: taon [natural native speed]
Michael: year
Erica: taon[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Erica: taon [natural native speed]
Michael: Next we have..
Erica: natanggap [natural native speed]
Michael: to be hired
Erica: natanggap[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Erica: natanggap [natural native speed]
Michael: Next we have..
Erica: Oo ba [natural native speed]
Michael: certainly, surely, for certain
Erica: Oo ba[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Erica: Oo ba [natural native speed]
Michael: Let's have a closer look at the usage of one of the phrases from this lesson. That is..
Erica: huli na nga eh
Michael: meaning "It's already late."
Erica: This phrase is made up of the words huli, meaning “late,” na, “already,” the enclitic particle nga, used for emphasis, and eh, an emphatic filler.
Michael: It's used to express that you or something else are already late for something.
Erica: We add the word po to make the phrase polite, so it becomes huli nga po eh.
Michael: Can you give us an example using this word?
Erica: Sure. For example, you can say.. Huli na nga ang dating ng package eh.
Michael: ..which means "The package is already late." Okay, now onto the grammar.

Lesson focus

Michael: In this lesson you’ll learn how to distinguish between actor-focused and object-focused verbs using pronouns. As discussed in previous lessons, verbs in Filipino can be conjugated based on whether they’re actor-focused or object-focused.
Erica: Exactly. Let’s consider this example, Nagumpisa na ba ang leksiyon? Nagumpisa is from the verb root umpisa which means “to begin” and is conjugated to form the actor-focused past tense nag-umpisa. The suffix nag- is attached to mag actor-focused verbs to form the perfective aspect. In simple terms, it denotes that the action has already been completed.
Michael: Some people refer to actor-focused as active voice and object-focused as passive voice. However, you have to be careful because the English idea of active and passive voices do not correspond well with the focus system in Filipino language.
Erica: Right. This system tells you which is the focus of the sentence, and it’s expressed with the markers and pronouns used and the way the verbs are conjugated.
Michael: Let’s look at actor-focused verbs first.
Erica: Sometimes actor-focused verbs are referred to as “Ang Focus” in connection with ang pronouns and ang markers. It is referred to as actor-focused because it is used to refer to the agents in the sentence.
Michael: What is the conjugation of an actor-focused verb?
Erica: Consider again the root umpisa, meaning “to start,” the past is nagumpisa, the present is nag(u)umpisa and the future is mag(u)umpisa.
Michael: Let’s give an example.
Erica:Nagumpisa na ako sa trabaho
Michael: “I started working”
Erica: Note that for actor-focused verbs, we use personal pronouns, in this case we used Ako, or “I,” and not ko, or “my.” Let’s see now the sentence from the dialogue Nagumpisa na ba ang leksiyon? In the complete form it should be Nagumpisa na ba ang leksiyon ang guro?
Michael: It means “Has the teacher started the lesson?”
Erica: In this case ang guro, “the teacher,” is the doer, but as we said, it’s not mentioned explicitly. The signal that the focus is the actor is the conjugation of the verb.
Michael: Listeners, you’ll find a list of some of the actor-focused conjugations in the lesson notes. Let’s look at the object-focused verbs too.
Erica: Object-focused verbs are sometimes called “Ng Focus” in relation to the ng markers and ng pronouns. And like the ng markers and pronouns, these verbs are used to refer to direct objects, or the objects in the sentence.
Michael: For example, similar to the previous example, how would we say “The lesson was started by the teacher”?
Erica: We can say, Inumpisahan ng guro ang leksyon. This is the same as in the dialogue, where we had Inumpisahan pa lang ni Prof, or “It has been started by the professor.” Though they are both in past tense, you can see that the forms nagumpisa and inumpisahan are different. Inumpisahan is object-focused conjugated in past tense.
Michael: Note that for object-focused conjugations, the focus of the sentence is the object, in this case the “lesson.” Erica, how do we conjugate these verbs?
Erica: Let’s consider the same root as before, umpisa, meaning “to start,” the past is inumpisahan the present is in(u)umpisahan and the future is (u)umpisahan. Please be aware that for object-focused conjugations, we use pronouns like ko and not ako, mo instead of ikaw and so on.
Michael: Listeners, you will find a list of some of the object-focused conjugations in the lesson notes too. Now let’s talk about the pronouns.
Erica: Sure, The most important thing to remember when differentiating between actor-focused and object-focused verbs is the pronouns which are used.
Michael: The difference is pretty simple, right?
Erica: Yes. If the ang pronouns are used, you can be sure that the verb is actor-focused. So an actor-focused sentence uses pronouns such as ako
Michael: “I,”
Erica: ikaw
Michael: “you,”
Erica: siya
Michael: “he” or “she”
Erica: sila,
Michael: “they,”
Erica: tayo
Michael: “us,”
Erica: or kami,
Michael: “we.”
Erica: On the other hand, if the ng pronouns are used, you know the verb is object-focused. So if you hear ko
Michael: “my,”
Erica: mo
Michael: “your”
Erica: niya
Michael: “his” or “her”
Erica: nila
Michael: “them”
Erica: natin
Michael: “our”
Erica: or namin
Michael: “our”
Erica: you can be certain that the verb in question is object-focused.
Michael: Let’s give a few examples showing the difference.
Erica: Sure, here is an actor-focused one, Kumain siya ng mansanas.
Michael: “She ate an apple.”
Erica: Notice that we used the pronoun siya. The same example as an object-focused sentence is Kinain niya ang mansanas.
Michael: Meaning “The apple was eaten by her.”
Erica: As you noticed, we used the pronoun niya.
Michael: What's another example?
Erica: Naglakad sila sa kalsada.
Michael: “They walked on the street.”
Erica: Nilakad nila ang kalsada.
Michael: Literally, “The street was walked on by them.”
Erica: Here’s a final one, Naglaro kami ng bola hanggang gabi.
Michael: “We played ball until evening.”
Erica:It can also be, Nilaro namin ang bola.
Michael: Literally, “Ball was played by them.”


Michael: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Erica: Salamat.