Vocabulary (Review)

Learn New Words FAST with this Lesson’s Vocab Review List

Get this lesson’s key vocab, their translations and pronunciations. Sign up for your Free Lifetime Account Now and get 7 Days of Premium Access including this feature.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Lesson Notes

Unlock In-Depth Explanations & Exclusive Takeaways with Printable Lesson Notes

Unlock Lesson Notes and Transcripts for every single lesson. Sign Up for a Free Lifetime Account and Get 7 Days of Premium Access.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Lesson Transcript

Michael: Hi everyone, and welcome back to FilipinoPod101.com. This is Intermediate Season 1, Lesson 13 - How's Your Work-Life Balance in the Philippines? Michael here.
Erica: Hello. I'm Erica.
Michael: In this lesson, you’ll learn about the different markers in Filipino and understand how to use them. The conversation takes place at the gym.
Erica: It's between Mike and Jeff.
Michael: The speakers are close friends, so they’ll be using informal Filipino. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.
Mike: Nakausap ko si Mark kanina.
Jeff: Oh, kamusta na siya? Hindi na kami nagkita mula nung kolehiyo.
Mike: May trabaho na siya. Pero palagi siyang pagod.
Jeff: Talaga? Bakit?
Mike: Dahil sa trabaho. Kung ako sa kanya, maghahanap ako ng ibang trabaho.
Jeff: Kamusta na sila ng girlfriend niya?
Mike: Ah, si Angel? Hindi na sila nakakapagkita, kulang kasi si Mark ng oras dahil sa trabaho.
Jeff: Ah, 'di maganda yun.
Mike: Oo nga eh, nag-aalala ako para sa kanila.
Jeff: Kung ako ang nasa kalagayan ni Mark, uunahin ko ang girlfriend ko.
Mike: Sana hindi sila magkahiwalay.
Michael: Listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Mike: I talked to Mark earlier.
Jeff: Oh, how is he? We haven't seen each other since college.
Mike: He already has a job, but he’s always tired.
Jeff: Really? Why?
Mike: Because of work. If I were him, I would look for another job.
Jeff: How is he doing with his girlfriend?
Mike: Ah, Angel? They can't see each other, because Mark doesn't have much time due to his job.
Jeff: That's not good.
Mike: Yeah, I'm worried for them.
Jeff: If I were in Mark's situation, I would put my girlfriend first.
Mike: I hope they don't break up.
Michael: Erica, are all the workplaces in the Philippines like the one they were talking about in the dialogue?
Erica: Actually, most often, it’s the time you spend commuting more than the actual work that makes working in Manila hard. Traffic jams and congestion are common. But fear not, there are many ways of commuting in Manila.
Michael: What kind of public vehicles do you see in Manila?
Erica: You'll find taxis, trains, buses, and jeepneys. Jeepneys are the most common means of transportation.
Michael: What do they look like?
Erica: They’re remodeled American jeeps that were made longer to fit more passengers. They’re usually extravagantly decorated, so they add color to Manila’s streets!
Michael: They sound interesting! What about trains and underground services?
Erica: There are three train lines going around Manila. There’s the Manila Light Rail Transit Line 1 that is usually called LRT 1, and 2 called MRT 2, and the Metro Rail Transit, which is MRT 3. The oldest, LRT 1, runs through the west part of Manila, MRT 3 runs through the eastern section, and MRT 2 runs through these two lines.
Michael: I suppose that like in other countries, using the train during rush hours is a tough thing to do.
Erica:Yeah! Lines that extend all the way outside the station are a common sight on weekday mornings.
Michael: That doesn’t sound like fun! Are there any useful expression we should know?
Erica: Yes, you’d better learn Para po.
Michael: That means "Please stop," as in a vehicle. Okay, now onto the vocab.
Michael: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is..
Erica: kolehiyo [natural native speed]
Michael: college
Erica: kolehiyo[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Erica: kolehiyo [natural native speed]
Michael: Next we have..
Erica: mula nung [natural native speed]
Michael: since
Erica: mula nung[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Erica: mula nung [natural native speed]
Michael: Next we have..
Erica: pagod [natural native speed]
Michael: tired
Erica: pagod[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Erica: pagod [natural native speed]
Michael: Next we have..
Erica: dahil [natural native speed]
Michael: because
Erica: dahil[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Erica: dahil [natural native speed]
Michael: Next we have..
Erica: girlfriend [natural native speed]
Michael: girlfriend
Erica: girlfriend[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Erica: girlfriend [natural native speed]
Michael: Next we have..
Erica: oras [natural native speed]
Michael: time
Erica: oras[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Erica: oras [natural native speed]
Michael: Next we have..
Erica: kulang [natural native speed]
Michael: not enough, lack
Erica: kulang[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Erica: kulang [natural native speed]
Michael: Next we have..
Erica: usap [natural native speed]
Michael: to talk
Erica: usap[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Erica: usap [natural native speed]
Michael: Let's have a closer look at some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word is..
Erica: palaging pagod
Michael: meaning "always tired."
Erica:This phrase, palaging pagod, follows the pattern “always” plus an adjective. When you want to add a subject, you change the pattern to palagi plus a subject plus an adjective.
Michael: Does this pattern ever change?
Erica: When the subject that you want to use is the name of a person, the pattern would be palaging plus an adjective plus si, then the name. For example, we say Palaging pagod si Mark,
Michael: meaning "Mark is always tired."
Erica: When the subject is a common noun, you simply say palaging plus adjective plus ang, then the common noun.
Michael: Can you give us an example?
Erica: Sure! You can say Palaging pagod ang lalaki
Michael: to mean "The man is always tired." Okay, what's the next word?
Erica: kung ako sa kanya
Michael: meaning "If I were him” or “her". So this is how you say what you would or could have done in someone else's shoes?
Erica: That’s right. The phrase kung ako sa kanya is used when you want to talk about the things or actions that you would have done in another person’s situation. The complete pattern that you should use is Kung ako sa kanya plus the action or phrase describing what you would do in their place. Remember that the verb for the action here can be in either the present, past, or future tense.
Michael: Can you give us an example using this phrase?
Erica: Sure. For example, you can say.. Kung ako sa kanya mas mag-aaral ako ng mabuti.
Michael: .. which means "If I were him, I would study harder.” Okay, now onto the grammar.

Lesson focus

Michael: In this lesson you’ll learn about different markers in Filipino. You may have noticed already that a number of particles exist in the Filipino language. Let’s review how you use markers for every noun.
Erica: In this lesson we’ll define what kind of marker we use depending on the function of the noun or its role in the sentence.
Michael: Among the most common particles that you may have encountered are...
Erica: ang, ng, and sa. In this lesson, we'll discuss the three groups of markers in Filipino. In the sentence from the dialogue, Kung ako sa kanya, maghahanap ako ng ibang trabaho
Michael: meaning “If I were him, I would find a new job.”
Erica: Here, we have the markers sa and ng
Michael: Listeners, remember that markers in Filipino are usually short words that identify the use of a word in the sentence. There are three groups of markers.
Erica: These are the ang, ng, and sa markers. They usually come before a noun.
Michael: Which is the first group?
Erica: The ang markers. These have two functions.
Michael: First, they are usually used to point out the focus of the sentence. Second, they point out the predicate, or the thing which describes the topic. Erica, can you give us an example?
Erica: Ang babae ay pumasok sa gusali.
Michael: meaning “The woman entered the building.” Here we can say that the article “the” has the same meaning as the Filipino marker.
Erica: Right. Ang markers include also si for singular personal names, sina for plural personal names, ang all other singulars, ang mga for all others plural.
Michael: Please give us an example with plural personal names.
Erica: Ok, here’s an example with sina. Sina Jane at Rose ang magluluto para sa birthday party.
Michael: “Jane and Rose will cook for the party.” Now can we have an example with a singular noun?
Erica: Sure! Ang babae ay maganda,
Michael: which means “The woman is beautiful.”
Erica: Please remember that the marker ang acts as the articles “the,” “a,” and “an” in English. The word mga is added to ang when the focus is plural. Si and sina have the same function, but are used only with personal names.
Michael: Ok, the second group is...
Erica: The other group of markers is ng. Ng performs a variety of functions in Filipino.
Michael: It actually has no direct translation in English, and these markers may appear as any of the English articles depending on the sentence. What are the most common functions of this group?
Erica: Indicating possession, marking the complement of an action if it’s not the focus of the sentence, and marking the doer of the action, but only if the doer is not the focus of the sentence.
Michael: Ok, could you provide an example for each function respectively?
Erica: Pumasok sila sa bahay ng babae.
Michael: “They entered the house of the woman.” Here the marker indicates possession.
Erica: Naiwan si Anna ng tren.
Michael: “Anna was left by the train.” Here the marker put the focus on the complement.
Erica: Pinakain ng nanay ang bata.
Michael: “The kid was fed by the mother.” Here the focus goes on the doer of the action, thanks to the marker.
Erica: Other markers of this group are ni for singular personal names, nina for plural personal names, ng for all other singular nouns, and ng mga for all other plural nouns.
Michael: The last group of markers is...
Erica: The sa markers group. These can indicate location, mark direction, and indicate possession.
Michael: What’s an example?
Erica: Ibinigay niya sa bata ang kendi.
Michael: “She gave the candy to the kid.” In this case, the marker indicates direction.
Erica: Other markers in the same group are kay for singular personal names, kina for plural personal names, and sa for all other singular nouns.
Michael: Listeners, for a complete set of examples for each of these markers, please check the lesson notes!
Erica: Let’s go back to the sentence from the dialogue, Kung ako sa kanya, maghahanap ako ng ibang trabaho,
Michael: Which means “If I were him, I would find a new job,”
Erica: Here, the markers ng and sa were both used. In sa kanya, sa is used to mark a focus on kanya, “him,” and ng is used to mark a direct object bagong trabaho, which is “new job.”
Michael: Listeners, note that it’s not always possible to give an exact and direct translation of the markers.


Michael: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Erica: Salamat.